DIDASKALIA

Footnotes for "Clytemnestra's Daughters"

1. "The [Oedipus] conflict takes on a more masculine and therefore more typical form in a son, whereas a daughter develops a specific liking for the father, with a corresponding jealous attitude towards the mother. We could call this the Electra complex. As everyone knows, Electra took vengeance on her mother Clytemnestra for murdering her husband Agamemnon and thus robbing her--Electra--of her beloved father"; see Carl Jung, The Theory of Psychoanalysis (1912), Collected Works iv. p.154.

2. Foreword to Bertine: Human Relationships (1957), Collected Works, vol. xviii, p.535.

3. Quotations are taken from Sophocles Electra, Antigone, Philoctetes, trans. Kenneth McLeish (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979).

4. Compare Mrs A. in Melanie Klein's "Mourning and its Relation to Manic-Depressive States" (1940): " One dream thought, therefore, ran: 'A mother's son has died ,or will die. It is this unpleasant woman's son...who should die'"; see The Selected Melanie Klein, ed Juliet Mitchell (New York: Free Press, 1987), p. 159.

5. See Gail Holst-Warhaft, The Cue for Passion: Grief and its Political Uses (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000), pp.54-77, for the carnivalesque and sexual aspects of wakes; and see also Joan Riviere, "On the Genesis of Psychical Conflict in Earliest Infancy" (1936),: " Many psychic manifestations show that a threat from the death instinct produces a strong uprush of Eros, and we may fairly conclude that the aim of this response is to counteract the destructive forces felt to be within. [This may well be one source of the sexual orgies indulged in at times of war, pestilence, etc.]"; see The Inner World and Joan Riviere, ed. Athol Hughes (London: Karnac Books, 1991), p. 288.

6. See The Freud-Klein Controversies 1941-45, ed. Pearl King and Riccardo Steiner (London and New York: Routledge, 1991), esp. pp.92-9, 237, 113-19; and see also Phyllis Grosskurth, Melanie Klein: Her World and her Work (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1987), pp.310-33.

7. See, for instance, Janine Chasseguet Smirgel, "Feminine Guilt and the Oedipus Complex", Essential Papers on the Psychology of Women, ed. Claudia Zanardi (New York: New York University Press, 1990), pp.88-131, and Hendrika Halberstadt Freud, "Electra vs Oedipus: Femininity Reconsidered", International Journal of Psycho Analysis, 79.1 (February 1998), 41-56.

8. See, for instance, Kate F. Hays, "Electra in Mourning: Grief Work and the Adult Incest Survivor", Psychotherapy Patient 2.1 (Fall 1985), 45-58, and "Jeff Richards and Jean M. Goodwin, "Electra: Revenge Fantasies and Homicide in Child Abuse Victims", Journal of Psychohistory 22.2 (Fall 1994),, 213-222.

9. See D.W. Winnicott, "Hate in the Countertransference" (1947), Through Pediatrics to Psycho-Analysis (New York: Basic Books, 1975), p.201.

10. See, for instance, Joan Riviere, "Hate, Greed and Agression" (1937), and "On the Genesis of Psychical Conflict", The Inner World and Joan Riviere, pp. 175, 279, 280.

11. "Mourning and its Relation to Manic-Depressive States", The Selected Melanie Klein, p.163.

12. "Hate in the Countertransference", Through Paediatrics to Psych-Analysis, p.202.

13. On the performative aspects of hate-speech, see Judith Butler, Excitable Speech: A Politics of the Performative (New York and London: Routledge, 1997).

14. Joan Riviere, "On the Genesis of Psychical Conflict in Earliest Infancy", The Inner World and Joan Riviere, p. 286.

15. For the relation between mourning and the law, see the provocative meditations in Gillian Rose, Mourning Becomes the Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996).

16. See The Cue for Passion, p. 106, and pp.104-123 for a full and moving account of the use of mourning as a political strategy by the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo.

17. See Joan Riviere on the child's jealousy of the mother's milk, sexual organs, and children, in "Jealousy as a Mechanism of Defence" (1932), Joan Riviere and the Inner World, p. 114.

18. See "Mourning and its Relation to Manic-Depressive States", The Selected Melanie Klein, p. 162.

19. Excitable Speech, p.102.

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